## 5 More Articulation Marks, Barline Types and Symbols

### 4.1 Articulation marks

#### 4.1.1 \staccmo

Marks notes as staccatissimo; affects both notation (looks like a small spike) and playback.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: optional

Semantics:

• If no range is specified, applies to the next note.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is above the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \staccmo ...
\staccmo( ... )

#### 4.1.2 \accentTen

Marks notes as accented tenuto; affects both notation (combination of accent and tenuto mark) and playback.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: optional

Semantics:

• If no range is specified, applies to the next note.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is above the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \accentTen ...
\accentTen( ... )

#### 4.1.3 \accentStacc

Marks notes as accented staccato; affects both notation (combination of accent and staccatto dot) and playback.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: optional

Semantics:

• If no range is specified, applies to the next note.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is above the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \accentStacc ...
\accentStacc( ... )

#### 4.1.4 \tenStacc

Marks notes as tenuto staccato; affects both notation (combination of tenuto mark and staccatto dot) and playback.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: optional

Semantics:

• If no range is specified, applies to the next note.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is above the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \tenStacc ...
\tenStacc( ... )

#### 4.1.5 \marcatoStacc

Marks notes marcato staccato; affects both notation (combination of marcato mark and staccatto dot) and playback.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: optional

Semantics:

• If no range is specified, applies to the next note.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is above the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \marcatoStacc ...
\marcatoStacc( ... )

  \hornOpen   % small o above note
\hornClosed % small + above note

\harmonic   % small o above note
%>> for fluttertongue use trem

### 4.2 Barline types

open issues:
- use rather \bar with extra style param??
- distinguish purely graphical forms \bar from those indicating start of measure \measure??
(could also use \barline, \bar to be consistent w/ Basic GUIDO)
- need global tag for measure numbering (style, size, on/off, position)?

#### 4.2.1 \thinDoubleBar

Indicates the start of a new measure marked with a thin double barline at the position where it occurs. Usage analogous to \bar.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• measureNum - set measure number to specific value.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
Range: none

Semantics:

• If no measureNum value is specified, the current measure number is increased by one.
Remarks:
• Do not use this tag for double lines before key or meter changes, as these are automatically inferred from the respective tags.
Examples:
        (see \bar)

#### 4.2.2 \dottedBar

Indicates the start of a new measure marked with a dotted barline at the position where it occurs. Usage analogous to \bar.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• measureNum - set measure number to specific value.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
Range: none

Semantics:

• If no measureNum value is specified, the current measure number is increased by one.
Remarks:
• Do not use this tag for dotted lines indicating metric subdivisions within bars, use \tactus instead.
Examples:
        (see \bar)
open issues:

- use rather \bar with extra style param??
- distinguish purely graphical forms \bar from those indicating start of measure \measure??
(could also use \barline, \bar to be consistent w/ Basic GUIDO)
- need global tag for measure numbering (style, size, on/off, position)?
4.2.3  \repeatBeginBar, \repeatEndBar, \repeatEndBeginBar

#### 4.2.4 \barFormat

Controls the graphic appearance of barlines.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• style - graphic apperance of barlines

• standard values:
• "staff" - barlines only within staves
• "system" - barlines across whole system
• "mensur" - barlines only between staves, no splitting and tieing of notes across barlines
default value: "staff"
Range: none

Semantics:

• This tag affects the graphic appearance of all subsequent barlines, across all voices.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        (...)
open issues:
- include default style for \bar (standard, dotted, subdivided, ...) ???

### 4.3 Miscellaneous

#### 4.3.1 \upBow, \downBow

Indicates up- and down-bow marks for strings.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: optional

Semantics:

• If no range is specified, applies to the next note.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is above the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \upBow ...
\downBow( ... )

#### 4.3.2 \pedalBegin, \pedalEnd

Indicates pedal marks for piano.

Parameters (in the order of their default positions):

• dy - vertical distance between center of symbol and center of associated note head, in halfspaces of the current system.

• default value: none, see Semantics.
• size - size of symbol, as a factor relative to the size of the note head.

• default value: 1.0
Range: none

Semantics:

• \pedalBegin and \pedalEnd occur always as a pair, indicating that the pedal is down between the two tags.
• If a range is specified, applies to all notes within its range.
• If no dy value is specified, the vertical position is automatically determined such that it is below the staff and collisions are avoided.
• The size of the symbol depends on the size of the note heads it is associated with.
Remarks:
• (none)
Examples:
        \pedalBegin ... \pedalEnd

- breathmark, holdmark
\breathMark
\holdMark
% notation: ' / "

+ fermata longa
\fermataLonga(notes)
\fermataLonga
% notation: square fermata sign

+ repeat measure
\repeatMeasure  % repeats last measure
\repeatMeasure<n> % same, n times
% in certain cases,

% notation can be infered from \repeatBegin, \repeatEnd

- miscellaneous signs
\coda  % coda sign (-> kopf)
\signa  % signa sign (-> dal segno al ...)
% more ??